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Solid model of high pressure chamber showing PDPA and imaging diagnostics

Spray Laboratory

The spray laboratory is a facility used for characterizing fuel injectors for internal combustion engines. Activities in the laboratory span the range of basic fluid mechanic research to production injector characterization. Measurement capabilities include:

  • liquid penetration using high-speed (HS), back-lit, imaging, see Fig. 1, Fig. 4
  • vapor penetration using HS, schlieren, imaging, see Fig. 2
  • cone angle using HS imaging, see Fig. 5
  • fuel droplet velocity at point locations using laser doppler velocimetry (LDV), see Fig. 6
  • fuel droplet sizing using phase doppler particle anemometry (PDPA), this yields the Sauter mean diameter (SMD) and other size information, see Fig. 7
  • spray pattern using HS imaging, see Fig. 8
  • fuel mass calibration and injection rate shape using a test bench, see Fig. 9

Facility

Two spray chambers are available for conducting fuel injector measurements in high pressure and/or temperature conditions, see Fig. 3

Animiated picture of a spray plume
Figure 1: High speed imaging, up to 34,500 Hz for single plume imaging (128x512 resolution)
PDPA and LDV droplet velocities and sizing down to 1 micrometer
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Animated picture of HS, schlieren imaged spray plume
Figure 2: High speed schlieren imaging of a spray plume at elevated temperature and pressure
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Medium pressure and temperature chamber:

  • Pressure 300 psi (2.07 MPa, 20.7 bar, 20.4 atm)
  • Temperature 482 F (250 C, 523 K)
  • Clear view of injector plume(s) 3.5 in (8.9 cm)

High pressure and temperature chamber:

  • Pressure 600 psi (4.14 MPa, 41.4 bar, 40.8 atm)
  • Temperature 800 F (426 C, 700 K)
  • Clear view of injector plume(s) 3.5 in (8.9 cm)
High pressure chamber photographs
Figure 3: High pressure chamber photographs
Liquid spray high-speed series
Figure 4: Liquid spray imaging, sample images from a high-speed series
Figure 5: Cone angle determination
Cone angle determination Cone angle determination plot
Plot of droplet velocities measured with LDV system
Figure 6: Droplet velocities measured with LDV system
Plot of Sauter mean diameter (SMD) with the PDPA system
Figure 7: Sauter mean diameter (SMD) with the PDPA system
Spray pattern of six-hole injector
Figure 8: Spray pattern of six-hole injector
Plot of fuel mass measurement using test bench
Figure 9: Fuel mass measurement using test bench

CONTACTS:

Jaal Ghandhi, Professor, jaal.ghandhi@wisc.edu, 608-263-1684
Jason Oakley, Scientist, jason.oakley@wisc.edu, 608-263-5295